Good afternoon, everyone. With me today I have Kathrine Morgan-Wicks the Secretary for Health and, obviously, Doctor Veitch, Director of Public Health. Today just for clarity I will deal with the Victorian situation first and foremost. I'll make some comments, then Doctor Veitch and then deal with some questions and then we've got a quick update in terms of the vaccination program as we indicated last week we would be doing.
Look where I want to start, and just again make the point, the health and safety of Tasmanians is our first priority. It's why we continue to be agile and responsive to COVID risks in other states. I do want to just thank Tasmanians for the efforts that they have put in to date. We are in a good place. Importantly we want to stay there.
Now, over the past week, in terms of Victoria, we've responded to the situation with 28 hotspots determined with corresponding requirements and restrictions for tavellers who have been in them. In terms of those hotspots, obviously the message is, if you've been to a hotspot at the time that was listed, don't come. And if you need to come, then you need to apply through the Good 2 Go app to arrive.
Now, obviously today Victoria has announced five new cases. I understand that case numbers in terms of active cases is now around 19 and the Premier of Victoria has just a little while ago announced a five-day lockdown - it being a four stage four lockdown which is a quite severe lockdown - for the whole of the state from midnight tonight to midnight on Wednesday. Therefore it's very prudent that we respond accordingly. And on public health advice from Doctor Veitch and his team, Victoria in its entirety will be declared a high risk state from midnight tonight. We will continue to review that, but obviously we would expect that to follow the same timeframe as Victoria, but obviously public health here will make their determinations into whether or not they believe, should the lockdown end in Victoria in five days, whether or not Tasmania's will end at the same time or not. That would be a matter for Doctor Veitch and his team.
Now, what this means is that tavellers from Victoria, anybody wanting to enter the state from midnight tonight, must go through the Good 2 Go process. With non-Tasmanian residents, the default position will be that you'll be denied entry. You will need to apply to the State Controller for an exemption if you wish to enter Tasmania and you are a non-Tasmanian resident. However, with Victoria in lockdown, the message is very clear: don't come to Tasmania. The Victorian government has asked you to abide by very strict restrictions in terms of your travel and movement, so after midnight tonight, unless there is an essential reason for you being here, please stay in Victoria.
Now, all Tasmanians returning after midnight tonight will be required to undertake 14 days of self-isolation and that can be done in their own premises, if it's suitable. If not, we will provide accommodation in the government hotel. The first 24 hours will be at the government's cost but after that they will be billed.
Now, in regards to the hotspots, the defined hotspots and that in addition to those have been previously communicated, obviously as of today Terminal 4 in Melbourne's Tullamarine airport has been declared a hotspot as well. Now we're currently messaging people who are currently in Tasmania who have come from Victoria and may have been in the Brunetti Cafe in Melbourne airport's Terminal 4 on the 9th of February from 1.45am in the morning to 1.15pm in the early afternoon on that day, they are being asked to immediately self-isolate. If they don't have a suitable premises we will provide government accommodation. And they will be, are being requested to contact Public Health and importantly arrange a test. So if anybody is in the state that has been in Brunetti Cafe in Melbourne airport's Terminal 4 and was in that terminal and cafe on the 9th of February from 4.45 am to 1.15 pm, please immediately self-isolate contact the Public Health hotline that is 1-800-671-738 and organise a test. We're also messaging people currently in the state who have travelled to Tasmania and may have been simply in Terminal 4 in its entirety on the 9th of February. Our message at this stage is again, please self-isolate and contact public health to discuss your circumstances with them.
Now, also out of an abundance of caution, anyone who is a Tullamarine airport on the 7th or 8th of February and who are currently in Tasmania we're asking that you monitor the symptoms and get tested if any present.
The other point I'd make is for those people returning from Victoria this afternoon and before midnight tonight - anyone returning this afternoon before midnight - if you have been to any of the 28 hotspots including Terminal 4, you will obviously have been requested to fill out your Good 2 Go app. If you are a Victorian, by alerting us to the fact that you've been to one of those hotspot areas, you won't be allowed to come unless you have an exemption and a reason to be here. If you are Tasmanian and you have been to any of those hotspot areas, again you'll be asked to self-isolate. Contact Public Health. So to be clear, our hotspot arrangements, and in terms of the Good 2 Go pass, in terms of those hotspot areas, we would ask that people go through that process. And importantly, if you're arriving before midday or midnight tonight, ensure that if you've been to one of those locations, please don't come. If you're a Victorian, or a Tasmanian returning home, you will be, you will need to self-isolate.
Now, in terms of Tullamarine, our intention, at this stage, is to not close that airport off to Tasmania. It is a significant transport hub, but we will continue to keep that under advisement from Public Health, for obvious reasons. We have hundreds of people Tasmanians each week that travel to Melbourne to and from that or to that terminal and through it for health related reasons. There are also the issue of flights from other states coming in and through that hub.
Again, the measures that we have taken a fortnight ago, in terms of people wearing facemasks, whilst entering a terminal within the terminal and on the plane we believe ensures that it's a very low risk, but we will continue to take that on advisement.
Now, importantly you know, I would hope that this is a temporary measure. Obviously, as I've said, from midnight tonight those travel restrictions will be implemented and obviously we will be cognisant of what occurs in Victoria over the next five days. But for how long those restrictions remain in place that will be a matter for the Director of Public Health.
I'll ask our Doctor Veitch now to make some comments and then we'll take some questions.
Thank you, Premier, and good afternoon. It's really quite disappointing to have to be telling the public this news about Victoria and Tasmania's response. We all have strong connections and feelings for our neighbour state and the people who live there- relatives and friends - but the actions that we're taking are actions that we are doing very similar to actions we've taken all the way through the pandemic - to protect Tasmanians. We're taking actions really in two directions, if you like. The first direction is looking forward and looking forward to the possibility that greater risk emerges in Victoria over the coming days that's why Victoria has imposed a lockdown. They're restricting the movement of people. They want to restrict the chance for this virulent strain of coronavirus getting hold in Tasmania and getting established in the Victorian population and spreading. That's why they're locking down.
We're responding to that prospect by really acting in a way kind of similar to Victoria and also reinforcing the Victorian strategy which is not to have people moving. And we really don't want to have people coming to Tasmania from Victoria from midnight tonight so that the people stay put in Victoria and that there's no risk, if risk does emerge in Victoria, of someone bringing that to Tasmania over the coming days so that's why we're acting to close the borders very substantially to Victoria from midnight tonight. We're also looking in perhaps particularly focusing on the risk over the past few days in Victoria. You'll know that over the successive days since the outbreak started in the Holiday Inn we've been adding hotspots locations where cases have been and may have posed a risk of infection and as the Premier mentioned I think the numbers up into the high 20s now and we're doing that because there was an outbreak at the Holiday Inn due to the use of a nebulizer. It appears there were six people within that hotel who become infected - four workers and two guests - and yesterday we learned that there'd been four people who were household close contacts of those of some of several of those workers had also become cases and two of those household closed contacts have posed a community risk. One, in particular, and that's a person who before they knew they were at risk of having coronavirus infection had worked at Brunetti's Cafe in Terminal 4 of the of Tullamarine and that person worked there during the day from 4.45 in the morning to a quarter past one in the afternoon at the Brunetti Cafe in Terminal 4. So we're particularly concerned to identify any people in Tasmania who have been at Brunetti Cafe during the morning and early afternoon on the 9th - that's Tuesday - if those people we've had a number of people already who've contacted us about that those people we will require to home quarantine if they have suitable premise here. And we want them to call the hotline to arrange quite urgently a test. Make sure they haven't been infected.
Now, I should add that people at the airport workers and people passing through the airport are required to wear masks at Melbourne airport so that does mitigate the risk somewhat but it doesn't necessarily completely eliminate it which is why we're being very cautious in wishing to identify people who are at that site because we can't be completely sure that the risk is confined to the immediate environment of the Brunetti Cafe which is across one side of the Terminal 4 food court area. We do want to get in touch and will require to quarantine anybody who went through Terminal 4 on the Tuesday the 4th of - sorry Tuesday the 9th of February - so that's not just the times when Brunetti's was a risk, it's for the entire day and that's because we really need to be absolutely certain that there's no one who by chance got infected as they moved through the food court to bring that infection back to Tasmania, so we will require those people to be quarantined and we'll arrange testing for them. They'll all be getting messages during the course of today asking them to call the hotline. I would ask them to be patient. There's probably in the order of 800 to 1,000 people who could be amongst those people who moved through the Terminal 4 on the day but if you can't immediately get onto the hotline please continue to isolate and call in a few hours’ time or even tomorrow morning. So we just need to make sure that that process happens smoothly and people understand that they will be managed but it may take some hours to get through so please be patient.
The other group of people that the Premier mentioned that we're also sending out alert to relates to another one of the cases acquired from someone who caught their infection at the Holiday Inn and that was a person who also worked at Tullamarine airport and they moved back their work took them across all of the terminals of Tullamarine airport on the 7th and 8th of February. We think the risk associated with those people is that person is fairly low because we know that they were wearing masks and again people at the airport were wearing masks and we think the infection was picked up so early on that it may be that the infectious risk is relatively less. However, anybody who was in Tullamarine airport on the 7th or 8th of February, please be vigilant for symptoms and call the public hotline if you have any symptoms whatsoever of a respiratory tract infection.
Obviously Melbourne is a popular destination for Tasmania, how high would you say the risk is of COVID already being in Tasmania from those outbreaks? We have been messaging people for the last two or three days that if they've been at any of the hotspots to get in touch with us. To date all of the infections in Melbourne have been either directly linked to the Holiday Inn or linked to people who were infected at the Holiday Inn within a household. There has yet to be any evidence of transmission at those various exposure sites in Melbourne that have been listed, so I think in a long way of coming around to answer your question; of course, it's always possible that infection can be introduced into the state unknowingly, but I think focusing on the people who have been at the high risk exposure sites are the people we really need to make sure know they need to get tested and to date actually we've only had one person come forward who's been to one of those exposure sites associated with Holiday Inn. They're in quarantine, they've been tested, they're negative. But anybody who's been in Victoria who's got any symptoms, really please get tested.
It's our understanding that six flights came in from Terminal 4 on the 9th of February - is that correct? That's my understanding too.
How are the testing rates going in Tasmania? over the last week we've averaged 0.8 per thousand, per day which is under the one which is less than the one per thousand per day. That works out to about a bit over 400 tests per day. I really hope this encourages particularly the people we're focusing on, but certainly anyone else who is concerned about symptoms to come forward and get tested.
Are we looking at doing wastewater testing anytime soon to try and detect fragments of COVID? We are looking at how we can arrange that.
It's under consideration? Yes.
How soon? I can't give you a timeline on that. Wastewater testing is not the most important thing. Absolutely the most important thing is people with symptoms going out and get tested. To date, in Australia wastewater testing has demonstrated coronavirus in wastewater, but so far always after it's been picked up by people who are known to have the infection so we really need to get onto people who've got symptoms early. Doing a wastewater test for example once a week tells us something well and truly after the fact. It's sort of additional information that's perhaps interesting to know, but the absolutely critical thing we need to know is that people have got symptoms of getting tested.
Do you have a message to Tasmanians that have come from Victoria in the last week and certainly ones that are going to be arriving today? What's your message to them about how serious this is? This is a very serious threat nationally really. This Tullamarine is a major transport hub so every state in Australia has reacted generally fairly similarly to how we have to put measures in place and i think that fairly consistent and widespread response and fairly significant responses across most of the states essentially putting up border restrictions. Extensive testing is an indication of how serious it is. This is a much more easily transmissible strain of the virus should it get established there will be an absolute need to impose the sort of measures that you'll read that Victoria is going to experience over the next five days very quickly to contain the infection so it's absolutely certain that we must pick up any cases that occur early and of course I hope there are none here.
We've had a couple of incidents where people have refused to wear masks at airports despite the mandate; does this sort of highlight why we should be doing that? It's actually a good point and you know it's demonstrating that airports are sites where cases of infection can be transmitted. I think mostly our focus has been on passengers moving to and fro, but I think what today shows is that the risk can also arise in workers and the fact that Victoria has been requiring masks of people in a whole lot of settings for a long time including airports gives us just a little measure of I'd say confidence but a little bit of reassurance that the risk is mitigated a bit because of that mask wearing in Tasmania. I hear that the vast majority of people wear masks without demonstration or complaint so I think the important thing is we look to what people are doing as a whole and understand that they're doing it to protect themselves in each other.
Is there an estimate of when we will open back up to Victoria or is it just more of a matter of monitoring their lockdown? We will monitor both their lockdown that is the actions they're taking but we'll be particularly paying attention to whether or not they pick up cases through their investigations. It's likely they'll pick up further cases that are linked to the cases they know about but the critical thing is whether there are cases outside those inner circles of the original cases.
If there's wider spread transmission then there'll be a need for a more prolonged restriction on the entry of people from Victoria, is that also a reason why you've shut down the whole of Victoria not just Melbourne? I think it's people moving in and out of Melbourne and a number of the exposure sites here are not so much inner Melbourne but they're in outer suburbs on the west and down towards the almost rural areas of the south west of Melbourne. So i think that practically speaking it needs to be a restriction that's across the whole state.
You said that you would be messaging about 800 to 1000 people that moved through Terminal 4 on that day - do you have any estimation of how many people actually visited the café? From the contact tracing we've had, I think heading towards 100 people who've contacted us already. We need to clarify whether they actually ate at the Brunetti Café, so I would expect that that doesn't surprise me at all that that you know maybe 10 to 20 per cent of people who move through that area. It's a kind of a waiting room, that food court, because everybody assembles there before they're called through to their flights so it's not surprising that a substantial proportion of the people who are there may have been to Brunetti's but we're effectively throwing the kind of alert out across anybody who moved through Terminal 4 and that includes people who were at Terminal 4 to fly to Tasmania that day. There may also be a small number of people who were in Terminal 4 on Tuesday who went somewhere else and the last day also have come to Tasmania and if they're here and were there then we want them to contact us too.
Was the worker that was working in the cafe was directly dealing with food or making coffees or whiskeys? I believe they were a public-facing worker.
I have a critical question: if we were unfortunately to report a case as a result of the Victorian outbreak what would what would your advice be to the Premier? What would what will be the point where you say ‘yeah, we need to go into one of these prolonged lockdowns for a couple of days’? I don't do hypotheticals, but I'll answer your question. If we had a case here we would do what Public Health has done all along. We would assess the risk that that poses to the Tasmanian community and we would provide the most careful cautious advice to the Premier and the Deputy State Controller and our own team to manage it so it doesn't pose a risk of spreading in Tasmania.
The case recently where a woman was diagnosed after she finished her quarantine has that sparked talk about whether 14 days is enough? Look I can't - they've been - I'm not sure the particular case you're mentioning. There certainly has been concern about the possibility of people becoming, or being diagnosed after leaving quarantine. That can happen really about three ways: one someone can have a very long incubation period so they got infected before they went into quarantine and don't get sick until afterwards. That's incredibly rare. What we've seen recently is that there've been people who've got infected while they were in quarantine from someone else and that's something that obviously measures need to be made to try and prevent that happening at all. The other thing you sometimes find if you test people outside of quarantine, you should pick up an old infection that could have happened months earlier so whenever these cases occur they each need to be assessed on what they were due to. But to get more directly back to your question, what we think that's very important is that anybody who's been in quarantine is mindful of their symptoms in the days afterwards - the people who have been picked up with acute infections after quarantine - have generally had some symptoms. So again if you leave quarantine and have symptoms, get tested. But there is some ongoing discussion about whether there needs to be any strategies to manage that risk.
Are there any questions on the Victorian matter before we move to vaccinations? But one thing I would say and I want to be very clear about this: this is a serious moment for us and I would encourage anyone that has been at those locations that we have mentioned today and at the times that have been mentioned you know to self-isolate to ensure that you do the right thing. We're on the cusp of a weekend, the last thing that we want is somebody that has been in Terminal 4 in that airport on that particular day - that is the day in question at night - that actually goes out tonight and infects hundreds of people in a nightclub or in a pub. You know this is a serious moment and I think that Tasmanians understand just how challenging this disease can be. I don't want to talk and reflect too much on what occurred on the north west coast but we know that this is challenging when it gets embedded in our community and so if you have been to Melbourne come out of Terminal 4 into Tasmania on the dates and times that we've spoken about today and you can check those on the website. You know, please be mindful to self-isolate and do the right thing. Yeah, we're depending on you.
What has happened today, is it time for a reassessment of international quarantining in CBDs? Well that's a matter for other states. I've already made an assessment of that and have made an arrangement with the Victorian government in terms of repat flights but how they manage their quarantine hotels in their own CBDs is a matter for them. Noting that to establish satellite quarantine centres is extraordinarily challenging and not every state would have the opportunity to do that given this.
Is the UK variant of the virus what you're looking at? What are the consequences for people that don't self-isolate? Well, in terms of self-isolate when you're requested to and if you are symptomatic then what you could do is end up shutting parts of the state down. Now we've seen what has occurred in Victoria and the very quick steps that they have taken, but that follows off the back of what we saw in Queensland, what we have witnessed in Western Australia and earlier on this year in South Australia, but with this variant you know I think anybody watching the Victorian Premier today at that press conference would understand just how serious this is and the concern that the Victorian government has. That concern is shared by me; shared by my government; shared by our public health officials; and, so in terms of the steps that we're taking today, whilst they may dislocate some travel arrangements; whilst they may you know make it difficult for some Tasmanians and certainly for Victorians that were thinking of coming here this is the right thing to do right now because we need to ensure that we do everything we possibly can to keep people safe.
In Melbourne they've cancelled the ANZAC day march - what are the plans that you're thinking for ANZAC day? At this stage well at this stage look again that's a hypothetical and you know I would hope that the steps that we have taken both in the lead up to today and that is by ensuring that those hotspots have been managed appropriately. And I'd make this point as well that you know a common comment that is provided to me in terms of our arrivals and departures from Tasmania but especially our arrivals is that we have one of the most watertight systems in the country in terms of asking people to fill out either the Tas e Travel if they're coming from low risk or Good 2 Go if its medium to high risk. And whilst it can be frustrating for some people as they work their way through the terminal after arriving here, what it means is that we have the contact details of those people that are in the state and that people have been asked the question as to whether or not they have been to any of those high risk or medium risk locations. Now, to say that they haven't if they have been is breaking the law both ours and the state that they are leaving from and so I think that we've got a very robust system in place at the moment and I would hope that that will stand us in good stead as we move forward.
What do you say to our tourism industry which will be taking a huge hit from this for the next five days? You must obviously feel for them. Look obviously the loss of Victorian tavellers will have an impact there is no two ways about that. What I would say is that a shutdown of the state if we had to get to that point would have an even greater impact so bear with us. I know this will be difficult but we will work through this and as quickly as we can hopefully return to normal
Okay, let's just touch on vaccinations.
Last week we said that we'd provide a weekly update. I'll provide some comments and I'll ask Kathrine to take any questions or any other issues in terms of it.
Now in terms of safeguards, you know, there is no doubt that the most the singular greatest safeguard that we can have will be vaccination as we move forward. That won't be a silver bullet, I've said that, but it will be our strongest shield to keeping our community safe. Now importantly you know, I would hope that the Tasmanians, and the feedback that I'm getting, is that the vast majority of Tasmanians are intending to work with us - the question I'm getting is not ‘why should I take it’, but ‘when can I have it’. And I'm pleased that we're getting those sorts of questions because it means that we've got an engaged community that's going to be really willing and able to have the vaccine.
Now we remain on track for the first batch of the Pfizer vaccine to arrive. That'll be, as I indicated before, in the last week of February. First dose has been delivered at the Royal Hobart Hospital groups within 24 hours of arrival. Now those groups - it'll be the priority groups - the first people in these groups will be the vaccinating teams including nurses and support staff for obvious reasons, staff at testing clinics (including healthcare workers who are collecting samples, traffic doing traffic control, testing site security, and on-site administration), staff who work at public and private laboratories involved in the collection and the processing of the samples, border and quarantine facility staff including nurses, hotel security, cleaners, social workers and food and beverage handlers, Emergency Department staff at both public and private hospitals, ICU staff at public and private hospitals, and key ambulance staff. They will be the first cohort of workers and Tasmanians that we'll be working with. The list of individuals is being finalised over the next week in consultation with employers both in the public and private sectors.
The people selected will be contacted directly over the coming week to arrange their two appointments which they will need to have at least 21 days apart for the two doses. Now it's going to be very important that Tasmanians understand that you'll need the two doses for this. It's not like the flu shot.
These priority groups will see both of their doses at the dedicated Pfizer hubs which will be three of Tasmania's major hospitals - obviously the Royal, the LGH and the North West Regional Hospital. It'll continue for three weeks located out of the Royal Hobart Hospital and then move to Launceston to the General Hospital there by the middle of March followed by the North West Regional Hospital in Burnie near the end of March. The aim is to have Tasmania's priority cohort groups fully vaccinated with the Pfizer vaccine by mid-April. That's around 14,000 people. This stage we estimate the wider Tasmanian community will start to be vaccinated from late April.
Now before I hand over to Kath I just want to emphasise the significance and importance of the vaccination strategy. Now while we've not fortunately experienced the number of cases of COVID that other jurisdictions across the world however it doesn't diminish the importance of the vaccine as a safeguard. In the UK more than 12 million people have had their first dose of the vaccine. In the US they're averaging around 1.5 million doses being administered each day. Now Tasmanians have worked so hard to get on top of this, it's important that when the time comes that we all roll up our sleeves and receive the vaccine which will is safe, it's effective, and it's free. Now if you have any concerns or doubts about the vaccines please find out more by checking the reliable sources of information, listen to the experts. And there will be some twitter and others out there that have got a view on this, listen to the experts and make an informed decision not only for yourself for your family your friends in the wider Tasmanian community. And there will always be more information that you can access on the coronavirus website coronavirus.tas.gov.au and I'd refer you to that as the most important place that you can receive information.
Now I'll hand over to Kathrine to make just a couple of comments but take questions as we move forward. Thanks, Kath.
Thanks, Premier, and really it is threats like today that underline the importance of our vaccination rollout in Tasmania. And if I can take the opportunity to reinforce the Premier's safety message and the importance of Tasmanian seeking out information from reliable sources if they've got any concerns. While the development and testing of COVID-19 vaccines has been quicker than usual, no shortcuts have been taken and safety remains the top priority. The urgency of this crisis means that globally all available resources and efforts are being directed towards finding safe and effective vaccines and this includes in Australia. All evidence shows that technology has evolved making vaccine development faster than in the past. Clinical trials progress more quickly if a disease is widespread as is the case with COVID-19 in many countries. Importantly COVID-19 vaccines must pass through the exact same rigour and phases of clinical trials as other vaccines and do not miss any important safety and quality checks or steps along the way. Approval is only given if the vaccine works and meets the appropriate safety requirements. Any COVID-19 vaccine for use in Australia must meet the same high standards of the Therapeutic Goods Administration as any other vaccine. Vaccine safety remains the TGA’s and the Australian government's top priority. If people are concerned about COVID-19 they should talk to their GP, visit the websites of expert organisations - such as the Melbourne Vaccination Education Centre or the National Centre for Immunisation Research and Surveillance and you'll find a wealth of independent information and answers to many of your questions. And more assuring, Tasmanians have access to the best and most up-to-date information as part of our government's program to roll out the vaccine. Now the program is going to plan and we are confident of being ready to receive the first tray of Pfizer vaccine in the last week of February and having the right people in the place in place to deliver the vaccine program is crucial. Earlier today an online training session for nurse immunisers was held at the Royal Hobart Hospital as part of the compulsory training for those administering the vaccine. Around 120 registered nurses statewide took part with more sessions planned for the coming weeks. We've just launched an Expression of Interest; a process for Enrolled Nurses to be part of the program and these nurses will assist nurse immunisers in the vaccine rollout over the next few months in a variety of locations including clinics and hospitals. The Royal Hobart Pfizer hub will be located in Ward 3a and work there is almost complete to ensure that it is ready for the first vaccinations the following week. Setting up the hubs is a logistical challenge - everything from installing and testing vaccine storage facilities, developing security protocols and installing and testing the required ICT, to ensuring that we have enough syringes, cotton buds, swabs, information leaflets for those having the vaccination. And the safety of our staff in delivering the vaccination rollout is paramount including for our pharmacy teams on how to safely handle decant and dilute materials that start at a minus 70 degrees temperature. The work is happening not only at the Royal but also at the LGH and the North West Regional Hospital in Burnie and I've visited the teams in the north and the north west over the last week to see their preparations. As we prepare we are engaging directly with our key stakeholders on a regular basis including GPs, pharmacists, the Aboriginal community and groups representing communities for whom English is their second language. And because this is a team effort involving many thousands of people over the next nine months, we will continue to keep everyone updated. So thank you and I look forward to next week's update when we'll be able to provide you with more detail about the rollout when it will exactly begin and the arrangements for the first day.
(COVID-related matters end)